Three Approaches to Center of Gravity Analysis: Heiland Since its inception as a core planning tenet, the process for determining COGs has been a point of contention and debate. Speculation on proper COG determination has given rise to other COG methodologies, which have both questioned and challenged established doctrine for COG determination. Therefore, the objective of this article is to compare and contrast different COG determination methodologies to reveal strengths and weaknesses of each and ultimately to make recommendations for changes to joint doctrine.
Subtype of power and influence. Wide variation in basis.
In the section Ship Design Analysis we will examine what spacecraft warships will need, what they won't need, and what sort of tasks they will likely be required to perform. In the section Ship Types we will examine the thorny issue of the terminiology of the various types of spacecraft. Express authority is the authority which the principal has expressly given to the agent whether orally or in writing. Implied authority (sometimes described as usual authority) is the authority of an agent to do acts which are reasonably incidental to and necessary for the effective performance of his duties. Articles for New Whither Innovation?: Why Open Systems Architecture May Deliver on the False Promise of Public-Private Partnerships.
But legitimacy also needed. D rarely relies on custom, affect, or pay alone. Everything about social organization of D seems to depend on basis of legitimacy claim.
Legitimacy is a reasonable basis for classifying types of domination. Authority relationship is a broad category.
A involves command and obedience. But there are gradations in real world. Three types of basis for legitimate authority: Structure of Excerpt This excerpt has three parts. FirstWeber "announces" domination, puts it in context of power and influence, and names some structural issues such as need for a staff that go with it.
Secondhe works through 7 "meta-theoretical" issues — mainly establishing that "basis of legitimacy" has multiple structural implications. Summary The Problem Weber begins by defining domination distinguishing it from power and influence, which he says are bigger categories.
The German for domination here is "Herrschaft" which could be literally translated as "lordship" as in "lordship over. For Weber, too, an important component of domination or authority is that it includes a subjective role for the dominated: Weber says it always "implies a minimum of voluntary compliance, that is an interest based on ulterior motives or genuine acceptance" in obedience" Weber Weber's point here is that in the case of authority relations, there is subjective action on both sides of the relationship.
Domination over groups of people requires a staff. The problem is how to maintain staff loyalty. Loyalty can be achieved "by custom, by affectual ties, by a purely material complex of interests, or by ideal wertrationale motives" But no matter the basis, more — legitimacy — is needed.
Based on experience, Weber notes, different kinds of legitimacy give rise to different "type[s] of obedience," "kind[s] of administrative staff," and "mode[s] of exercising authority" It is present to a different degree in different realms governed by law and custom, but we'd say it exists whenever there is some degree of "voluntariness" on the side of the subject.
Just having power — as when a bank exercises monopolistic control — is not enough to call it "authority" per se para 6, The final part of the financial analysis is to establish a proper basis for comparison, so you can determine if performance is aligned with appropriate benchmarks.
This works for each data point individually as well as for your overall financial condition. 06 Two types of misstatements are relevant to the auditor's considera- Three conditions generally are present when fraud occurs.
First, man-agement or other employees have an incentive or are under pressure, which provides a reason to commit fraud.
Second, circumstances exist—for example. Express authority is the authority which the principal has expressly given to the agent whether orally or in writing. Implied authority (sometimes described as usual authority) is the authority of an agent to do acts which are reasonably incidental to and necessary for the effective performance of his duties.
These three forms do not constitute the totality of types of domination but they show how it is possible for some people to exercise power over others. Authority extends and maintains power and shows a study of its origins can show how people come to accept this domination as a .
A budget is a plan for an organization's outgoing expenses and incoming revenues for a specific period. Budgets help ensure that spending follows a plan, supports business objectives, and does not exceed available funds.
Budget categories, budgeting process, and budget variance analysis . Power, Authority and the State Area Goals • Have a critical understanding of the three types of legitimate rule outlined For Anthony Giddens, ‘power’ is a fundamental concept in the social sciences.
By ‘power’ Giddens means ‘transformative capacity’; in other words, the ability to.