One difference between them is that the Roman Empire was a republic, where the wealthy aristocratic men got to vote for their leader, and Han China was a dynasty, where the rule was passed down the family. The Roman Republic was a democratic nation, focused on alliances and trade and military around the Mediterranean Sea. The empire was led by a monarch, or emperor, who in almost every way had total control.
For instance, Warwick Ball contends that the maritime spice trade with India and Arabia was Difference between han china and rome more consequential for the economy of the Roman Empire than the silk trade with Chinawhich at sea was conducted mostly through India and on land was handled by numerous intermediaries such as the Sogdians.
Significantly, these mines were not very far from the lapis lazuli and spinel "Balas Ruby" mines in Badakhshanand, although separated by the formidable Pamir Mountainsroutes across them were apparently in use from very early times. This style is particularly reflected in the rectangular belt plaques made of gold and bronze, with other versions in jade and steatite.
Scythians accompanied the Assyrian Esarhaddon on his invasion of Egyptand their distinctive triangular arrowheads have been found as far south as Aswan. These nomadic peoples were dependent upon neighbouring settled populations for a number of important technologies, and in addition to raiding vulnerable settlements for these commodities, they also encouraged long-distance merchants as a source of income through the enforced payment of tariffs.
Sogdians played a major role in facilitating trade between China and Central Asia along the Silk Roads as late as the 10th century, their language serving as a lingua franca for Asian trade as far back as the 4th century.
By the time of Herodotus c. By having fresh horses and riders ready at each relay, royal couriers could carry messages and traverse the length of the road in nine days, while normal travellers took about three months.
The next major step in the development of the Silk Road was the expansion of the Greek empire of Alexander the Great into Central Asia. They continued to expand eastward, especially during the reign of Euthydemus — BCEwho extended his control beyond Alexandria Eschate to Sogdiana.
There are indications that he may have led expeditions as far as Kashgar in Chinese Turkestanleading to the first known contacts between China and the West around BCE. The Greek historian Strabo writes, "they extended their empire even as far as the Seres China and the Phryni.
Chinese exploration of Central Asia Main articles: This extension came around BCE, with the embassies of the Han dynasty to Central Asia following the reports of the ambassador Zhang Qian  who was originally sent to obtain an alliance with the Yuezhi against the Xiongnu.
Zhang Qian visited directly the kingdom of Dayuan in Ferghanathe territories of the Yuezhi in Transoxianathe Bactrian country of Daxia with its remnants of Greco-Bactrian rule, and Kangju. He also made reports on neighbouring countries that he did not visit, such as Anxi ParthiaTiaozhi MesopotamiaShendu Pakistan and the Wusun.
Ferghana Dayuan "Great Ionians " and the possessions of Bactria Ta-Hsia and Parthian Empire Anxi are large countries, full of rare things, with a population living in fixed abodes and given to occupations somewhat identical with those of the Chinese people, but with weak armies, and placing great value on the rich produce of China" Hou Hanshu, Later Han History.
Others  say that Emperor Wu was mainly interested in fighting the Xiongnu and that major trade began only after the Chinese pacified the Hexi Corridor. The Silk Roads' origin lay in the hands of the Chinese.
The soil in China lacked Selenium, a deficiency which contributed to muscular weakness and reduced growth in horses. Even after the construction of the Great Wall, nomads gathered at the gates of the wall to exchange.
Soldiers sent to guard the wall were often paid in silk which they traded with the nomads. The Chinese subsequently sent numerous embassies, around ten every year, to these countries and as far as Seleucid Syria.
As a rule, rather more than ten such missions went forward in the course of a year, and at the least five or six. These connections marked the beginning of the Silk Road trade network that extended to the Roman Empire. It has been suggested that the Chinese crossbow was transmitted to the Roman world on such occasions, although the Greek gastraphetes provides an alternative origin.There were two major similarities between the Roman Empire and Han Dynasty: the large land areas under their control and the fact that both empires peaked at around the same time in history.
The differences are also fairly evident.
Rome expanded its rule over continental Europe, Britain and the Near. WHEN China was first unified in BC, Rome was fighting Carthage for dominion over the western Mediterranean. Rome would go on to rise further and, famously, fall.
The Imperial Roman Empire from 31 B.C.E. to C.E. and the Han Dynasty of China from B.C.E. to C.E. are two well-known classical empires. These two empires have many similarities and differences between their political structures. - Han dynasty: 60 million people, - also about 60 million people but virtually all were in “inner China” only a few of these million in Italy ˇ ˇ ˘" - Although Confucian China spoke of a - Imperial Rome knew of its actual, mythological golden age of equality historical republican past and always Microsoft Word - ashio-midori.com The region known as the Middle East has been conquered and reconquered by every super power in the West.
This has created a region rich in a culture of resistance and thousands of ethnic groups. + free ebooks online. Did you know that you can help us produce ebooks by proof-reading just one page a day? Go to: Distributed Proofreaders.