April 14, Author: Rob Walsh Filed under:
Demand characteristics and investigator effects Data analysis Measures of central tendency and of dispersion Correlation coefficients Presentation and interpretation of quantitative data Analysis and interpretation of qualitative data Presentation of qualitative data However, this is not a logical teaching order so although this booklet will cover all the stuff mentioned above it will follow a different sequence and hopefully one more similar to the route taken in class.
Ethical issues in Psychological research Ethics are the moral codes laid down by professional bodies to ensure that their members or representatives adhere to certain standards of behaviour.
All scientific bodies have such codes but those in psychology are particularly important because of the subject matter of the topic. Psychology is unlike most other subject areas in that its subject matter is entirely human or animal.
Because of this practically all research involves living things that can be caused physical or psychological harm. Psychological research also needs to consider the wider community. Some research, for example studies on IQ, have been used to discriminate against different races or ethnic groups.
The knowledge gained from psychological research can be exploited by people or groups to gain an advantage over others. Protecting the individual in psychological research Many of the ideas mentioned in this section will be raised as we cover other topics later in the year and particularly in the last topic on social influence.
Deception Protection of participants from physical and psychological harm The right to withdraw The right to withdraw data Confidentiality and Privacy We shall then consider ways of determining whether or not studies should take place, and strategies for minimising risks if they do.
To protect the well being, health and dignity of participants in psychological research. Did what we learn justify these methods? Deception Examples of studies involving deception: Asch, Milgram, Moscovici Deception involves either concealing the real intention of a study from participants or taking steps to mislead them at the outset.
All of the examples above used the second ploy, deliberately lying to participants about the genuine reason for a study. Two of them also used stooges or confederates people pretending to be participants who are really part of the experimental set up. The use of stooges always means deception has been used.
However, is deception necessary? The researchers above would all argue that their experiments could not have taken place without it. When using the BEM sex role inventory to test gender, telling male participants in advance that you are trying to find how masculine or feminine they are will almost certainly influence the way they respond to the questionnaire!
Baumrind on the other hand argues that deception is always wrong since it prevents informed consent see belowresearchers have an obligation to protect their participants see below and psychologists should be seen as professional and therefore trustworthy.
Debriefing It is really a matter of common courtesy to debrief your participants at the end of any procedure and inform them of the point of the research.
Debriefing is crucial if any form of deception has been employed. A proper debrief should: Give the participant the right to withdraw their data and to see the finished write-up of the report if they so wish.
As well as having the best interests of the participant in mind, debriefs can also be a useful source of additional information in an experiment. Participants may tell you things that you would otherwise not be aware of.
In the case of Milgram some participants also received follow up psychiatric visits! Consent and Informed consent Consent Simply refers to participants willingly and voluntarily taking part in your experiment. Milgram and Asch for example did obtain consent.
In the case of Milgram he placed his infamous advert in the local paper and people turned up.
Following the war it was decided that consent should be enshrined as a basic human right. Informed consent This refers to participants giving their consent in full knowledge of the aims of the study, the expectations of them and their right to withdraw and to confidentiality.What follows is meant as a summary or brief overview only of this topic area.
It is essential that a combination of class exercises and/or texts are used with the notes to provide a fuller understanding of the issues covered.
Holmes and Rahe have developed a Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS), which is called as Holmes and Rahe stress scale. It is a tool which helps to evaluate the load of stress carried by the individuals and the ways to deal with the stress (Blasco-Fontecilla, et /5(14K).
Explain Life Events (SRRS) Holmes and Rahe; "not just negative things that cause stress but positiver things like marriage." Came up with SRRS, people made a list of stressful things and ranked them and give values. 1. The social readjustment rating scale was proposed by Holmes and Rahe ().
2. It was a questionnaire containing 43 items, each item was a life event. 3. Each life event was given a life change unit where was the highest (death of a spouse). 4. Explain how the SRRS was devised and evaluate the use of this technique (8marks) Holmes and Rahe () developed the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) which identifies 43 stressful life changes that can contribute to stress-related illness.
AO1. Under this definition of abnormality, a person's trait, thinking or behavior is classified as abnormal if it is rare or statistically unusual.