Following the same procedure you used yesterday, collect information from two 2 more sources. Following the same procedure you used yesterday, collect information from a chart or graph.
Any broadminded humanist project involves interdisciplinarity, and history shows a crowd of cases, as seventeenth-century Leibniz's task to create a system of universal justice, which required linguistics, economics, management, ethics, law philosophy, politics, and even sinology.
For example, social science disciplines such as anthropology and sociology paid little attention to the social analysis of technology throughout most of the twentieth century. As a result, many social scientists with interests in technology have joined science, technology and society programs, which are typically staffed by scholars drawn from numerous disciplines.
They may also arise from new research developments, such as nanotechnologywhich cannot be addressed without combining the approaches of two or more disciplines.
Examples include quantum information processingan amalgamation of quantum physics and computer scienceand bioinformaticscombining molecular biology with computer science.
Sustainable development as a research area deals with problems requiring analysis and synthesis across economic, social and environmental spheres; often an integration of multiple social and natural science disciplines. Interdisciplinary research is also key to the study of health sciences, for example in studying optimal solutions to diseases.
At another level, interdisciplinarity is seen as a remedy to the harmful effects of excessive specialization and isolation in information silos. On some views, however, interdisciplinarity is entirely indebted to those who specialize in one field of study—that is, without specialists, interdisciplinarians would have no information and no leading experts to consult.
Others place the focus of interdisciplinarity on the need to transcend disciplines, viewing excessive specialization as problematic both epistemologically and politically. When interdisciplinary collaboration or research results in new solutions to problems, much information is given back to the various disciplines involved.
Therefore, both disciplinarians and interdisciplinarians may be seen in complementary relation to one another. Barriers[ edit ] Because most participants in interdisciplinary ventures were trained in traditional disciplines, they must learn to appreciate differing of perspectives and methods.
For example, a discipline that places more emphasis on quantitative "rigor" may produce practitioners who think of themselves and their discipline as "more scientific" than others; in turn, colleagues in "softer" disciplines may associate quantitative approaches with an inability to grasp the broader dimensions of a problem.
An interdisciplinary program may not succeed if its members remain stuck in their disciplines and in disciplinary attitudes. On the other hand, and from the disciplinary perspective, much interdisciplinary work may be seen as "soft", lacking in rigor, or ideologically motivated; these beliefs place barriers in the career paths of those who choose interdisciplinary work.
For example, interdisciplinary grant applications are often refereed by peer reviewers drawn from established disciplines ; not surprisingly, interdisciplinary researchers may experience difficulty getting funding for their research.
In addition, untenured researchers know that, when they seek promotion and tenureit is likely that some of the evaluators will lack commitment to interdisciplinarity. They may fear that making a commitment to interdisciplinary research will increase the risk of being denied tenure.
Interdisciplinary programs may fail if they are not given sufficient autonomy. For example, interdisciplinary faculty are usually recruited to a joint appointmentwith responsibilities in both an interdisciplinary program such as women's studies and a traditional discipline such as history.
If the traditional discipline makes the tenure decisions, new interdisciplinary faculty will be hesitant to commit themselves fully to interdisciplinary work. Other barriers include the generally disciplinary orientation of most scholarly journals, leading to the perception, if not the fact, that interdisciplinary research is hard to publish.
In addition, since traditional budgetary practices at most universities channel resources through the disciplines, it becomes difficult to account for a given scholar or teacher's salary and time. During periods of budgetary contraction, the natural tendency to serve the primary constituency i.
For these same reasons, the introduction of new interdisciplinary programs is often resisted because it is perceived as a competition for diminishing funds. Due to these and other barriers, interdisciplinary research areas are strongly motivated to become disciplines themselves.
If they succeed, they can establish their own research funding programs and make their own tenure and promotion decisions. In so doing, they lower the risk of entry.
Examples of former interdisciplinary research areas that have become disciplines, many of them named for their parent disciplines, include neurosciencecyberneticsbiochemistry and biomedical engineering.• Successfully completing all components of the Graduation Project: research paper, portfolio, product, and oral presentation • Working on the culminating project independently, unless otherwise approved • Submitting all paperwork and documentation by designated de adlines.
She completed M. Sc. from Amrita University, Kerala and she won first Rank in the University Examination. She did her M. Sc Project at IIT Bombay under the Guidance of Prof. Debabrata Maiti on the topic “Catalytic palladium nano particle prepared using α-sy nucelin amyloid template”.
About us. John Benjamins Publishing Company is an independent, family-owned academic publisher headquartered in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. More. Access Google Drive with a free Google account (for personal use) or G Suite account (for business use). Guidelines for the Preparation of Your Master’s Thesis Foreword This guidebook summarizes the procedures followed by the Office of Graduate Studies and Research for students who are planning to write theses for their master’s degree.
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Forms. attachment from Jordan Hoyle. View All; Home > Research Paper When medical professionals began prenatal care practices, they could only examine the outside of a woman’s body. Techniques have evolved that now allow a professional several safe ways to.