The National Road was created by the United States government under the advisement of President Thomas Jefferson in to provide a route from the settled eastern seaboard into the central part of the country to open up the Midwest for settlement.
Different tribes of Native Americans lived in the area that is now California for an estimated 13, to 15, years. Over tribes and bands inhabited the area. California's population held about one-third of all Native Americans in what is now the United States.
The natives controlled fire on a regional scale to create a low-intensity fire ecology which prevented larger, catastrophic fires and sustained a low-density agriculture in loose rotation; a sort of "wild" permaculture.
This popular Spanish fantasy was printed in several editions with the earliest surviving edition published about In exploring Baja California the earliest explorers thought the Baja California peninsula was an island and applied the name California to it.
European explorers flying the flags of Spain and of England explored the Pacific Coast of California beginning in the midth century. Francisco de Ulloa explored the west coast of present-day Mexico including the Gulf of Californiaproving that Baja California was a peninsula,  but in spite of his discoveries the myth persisted in European circles that California was an island.
Rumors of fabulously wealthy cities located somewhere along the California coast, as well as a possible Northwest Passage that would provide a much shorter route to the Indiesprovided an incentive to explore further.
He died in southern California in Cabrillo and his men found that there was essentially nothing for the Spanish to easily exploit in California, and located at the extreme limits of exploration and trade from Spain it would be left essentially unexplored and unsettled for the next years.
The Cabrillo expedition depicted the Indians as living at a subsistence level, typically located in small rancherias of extended family groups of to people. Traditional clothing was minimal in the summer, with tanned deerhide and other animal leathers and furs and coarse woven articles of grass clothing used in winter.
Feathers were sewn into prayer pieces worn for ceremonies. Some tribes around Santa Barbara, California and the Channel Islands California were using large plank canoes to fish and trade, while tribes in the California delta and San Francisco Bay Area were using tule canoes and some tribes on the Northwest coast carved redwood dugout canoes.
Despite this, the natural abundance of California, and the environmental management techniques developed by California tribes over millennia, allowed for the highest population density in the Americas north of Mexico.
This tradition of landscape management through fire ecology maintained acorn groves and other food sources, which along with knowledge of migratory herds such as elk and anadromous runs of salmon in the rivers, supported villages, small tribes, and extended family groups.
A dietary staple for most Indian tribes in interior California was acornswhich were dried, shelled, ground to flour, soaked in water to leach out their tanninand cooked. The grinding holes worn into large rocks over centuries of use are still visible in many rocks today.
Acorn preparation was a very labor-intensive process nearly always done by women. There are estimates that some Indians might have eaten as much as one ton of acorns in one year. Acorns were gathered in large quantities, and could be stored for a reliable winter food source.
Local trade between Indian tribal groups enabled them to acquire seasonings such as salt, or foodstuffs and other goods that might be rare in certain locales, such as flint or obsidian for making spear and arrow points. Native cultures in California are much different from other Indian cultures in North America, and some have survived to the present day.
California indigenous language diversity numbered 80 to 90 languages and dialects, some surviving to the present although endangered.Jun 17, · The study of history and historical writings is called historiography; American Jewish history is one form to study about the past of the American Jews.
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