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Here are my own thoughts on this matter. Over the years I have become increasingly uncomfortable with the way many people use the terms "independent variable" and "dependent variable. Researchers commonly associate the term "independent variable" with "cause" and "dependent variable" with "effect.
Let me give you an example. Several years ago I was assisting a doctoral student with his dissertation. He was investigating the correlates of a single outcome variable which was treated as continuous. Among his predictor variables were several categorical variables. All of the variables were derived from items on a survey given to students at Florida State.
No variables were manipulated. I dummy coded the categorical variables and threw them, along with some continuous predictors, into a multiple regression. A week or so after I sent the results to the doctoral student, he wrote back and told me that the dissertation director wanted the categorical predictors analyzed by ANOVA, not by multiple regression as if there were a difference.
Well, believe it or not, the response I got was that if we did the analysis as an ANOVA, then those predictors would be "independent variables" and we could conclude that they CAUSE changes in the "dependent variable. I ended up telling my client to simply change the phrase "multiple regression" to "ANOVA" to make the director happy.
Is this incident an anomaly?
Regretfully not, in my experience. On a few occasions I have demonstrated to such persons that the pooled variances independent samples t test is absolutely equivalent to the t used to test the significance of the point biserial r.
Their jaws really dropped. I now advise my students that others will tend to use the term "independent variable" with variables that are manipulated rather than observed, or known rather than predicted, or measured earlier in time rather than later if we predict high school grades from college grades, which variable is "independent?
I explain that the use of the terms "independent variable" and "dependent variable" in nonexperimental research can cause confusion, but confess to doing it myself but I am trying to stop this bad habit.
I suggest alternative terms such as "predictor variable," "factor," in ANOVA, but the American Psychological Association does not like that use"grouping variable," "classification variable," "criterion variable," "outcome variable," and "response variable.
Use the terms "independent variable" and "dependent variable" only with experimental research. With nonexperimental research use "predictor variable" and "criterion variable.Three years later, in , the family's gardening ambitions and Ellie's in particular, prompted Frederick Willmott to buy a country estate, Warley Place at .
Consolidating the data is something that’s needed to be done for a while. Most surveys on the book selling industry totally ignored/underestimated self publishing sales.
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Instructors and testing agencies assign a lot of personal experience type essays and so it is. Independent Literacy Essay Words | 8 Pages. Independent Literacy When I went to the movies for the first time with Bobby, the person who I now consider a close friend, I chose the wrong seat to sit down in.
Bobby, who has been deaf in his left ear since birth, occupied the seat to the right of me that night.