In order to meet the varying needs of this audience, several layers of guidance are provided including overall principles, general guidelines, testable success criteria and a rich collection of sufficient techniques, advisory techniques, and documented common failures with examples, resource links and code. Principles - At the top are four principles that provide the foundation for Web accessibility: See also Understanding the Four Principles of Accessibility. Guidelines - Under the principles are guidelines.
Well development occurs after exploration has located an economically recoverable field, and involves the construction of one or more wells from the beginning Mechanism process description spudding to either abandonment if no hydrocarbons are found, or to well completion if hydrocarbons are found in sufficient quantities Production is the process of extracting the hydrocarbons and separating the mixture of liquid hydrocarbons, gas, water, and solids, removing the constituents that are non-saleable, and selling the liquid hydrocarbons and gas.
Production sites often handle crude oil from more than one well. Oil is nearly always processed at a refinery; natural gas may be processed to remove impurities either in the field or at a natural gas processing plant.
Finally, site abandonment involves plugging the well s and restoring the site Mechanism process description a recently-drilled well lacks the potential to produce economic quantities of oil or gas, or when a production well is no longer economically viable. Advanced Drilling Technologies Traditionally oil and gas wells are vertically drilled.
Technological advancements have allowed operators to save time, reduce operational costs, and lessen their environmental impact. New drilling technologies include the following techniques: The cost for building horizontally drilled wells was only 2.
Horizontal drilling starts with a vertical well that turns horizontal within the reservoir rock in order to expose more open hole to the reservoir. Horizontal wells are attractive because they 1 can be used in situations where conventional drilling is impossible or cost effective, 2 reduce surface disturbance by requiring less wells to reach the reservoir, and 3 can produce as much as 15 to 20 times as much oil and gas compared to a vertical well.
Multilateral Drilling Sometimes oil and natural gas reserves are located in separate layers underground. Multilateral drilling allows operators to branch out from the main well to tap reserves at different depths. This dramatically increases production from a single well and reduces the number of wells drilled on the surface.
Extended Reach Drilling Extended reach drills allow producers to reach deposits that are great distances away from the drilling rig. This can help producers tap oil and natural gas deposits under surface areas where a vertical well cannot be drilled, such as under developed or environmentally sensitive areas.
Wells can now reach out over 5 miles from the surface location and, dozens of wells can be drilled from a single location, reducing surface impacts.
Complex Path Drilling Complex well paths can have multiple twists and turns to try to hit multiple accumulations from a single well location.
Using this technology can be more cost effective and produce less waste and surface impacts than drilling multiple wells. Benefits of Directional Advanced Drilling Technologies: Unconventional Natural Gas See our Coalbed Methane page for a detailed description on this unconventional gas technology and the BMPs that help to regulate it.
Unconventional oil resources are produced by methods other than the traditional oil well. These resources include oil sands, tar sands, heavy oil, and oil shale, but are beyond the scope of this website. Unconventional natural gas development is characterized by unique geologic attributes that make the reservoirs more challenging to produce.
The formations are generally tighter or have a lower permeability and include tight gas, shale gas, hydrates,and coalbed methane.
Improving the Process A variety of new technologies and practices can be implemented to minimize the environmental footprint of development. In the following sections and links, we spotlight some examples in the Intermountain West.
Consolidating Facilities Development of each well requires certain basic processes, facilities, equipment, and personnel. That said, innovators have realized that, at least in some situations, the overall environmental footprint in a field can be reduced by consolidating some of these.
Examples of consolidation include: Drilling from a few to a few dozen wells from a single pad Corridors: Consolidation Drawbacks Multiple well pads Requires less roads and infrastructure, leading to a smaller disturbance per well and reduced overall production footprint Can eliminate disturbance in particularly sensitive areas Reduced drilling and completion time, which reduces rig rental costs Reduced need for service crews, decreasing traffic and associated emissions and operating costs Increased efficiency of hydrocarbon recovery from the chosen reservoir Higher concentration of surface disturbance and waste generation Batch processing of multi-well pads requires that all wells on the pad be drilled and completed before the results of the first well are known, delaying the start of production Common Corridors.Description of Mechanism Laptop.
Description of Mechanism A laptop computer is a personal computer that is portable or easy to carry around, and is similar to a desktop computer because it incorporates all of the same elements. Laptops are designed for internet use, producing documents, graphic design, storing files, and communicating with others.
Congaplex Research Study. In a series of cell-culture experiments using immortalized T cells, Standard Process researchers showed that Congaplex affected signals produced by white blood cells. Mar 21, · Description of a Process» Description of Mechanism. A mechanism is generally defined as any object or system that has a working part or parts.
Most often the term suggests tools, instruments, and machines.
But other examples of mechanisms could be the human body and systems like the universe or a city, which is composed . Mechanism Description of an Electric Guitar. Mechanism Description of an electric guitar Introduction An electric guitar is a stringed musical instrument played with fingers or a plectrum (pick).
It consists of a body, a neck and a headstock to which usually six steel strings are attached. ICD Version Chapters. Certain infectious and parasitic diseases Neoplasms Diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs and certain disorders involving the immune mechanism.
A technical writer may use a description of a process to inform an audience that has little knowledge or experience with that technical expertise. For example, an engineering company entering a bid for a project may need to include a technical description of an involved process that a .