The role of the government in the censorship of art

Censorship of the Arts Yes because

The role of the government in the censorship of art

Production Code and Motion Picture Association of America film rating system The first act of movie censorship in the United States was an statute of the State of Maine that prohibited the exhibition of prizefight films.

Corbett and Robert Fitzsimmons. Some other states followed Maine. Industrial Commission of Ohio in which the court determined that motion pictures were purely commerce and not an art, and thus not covered by the First Amendment.

Between the Mutual Film and the Joseph Burstyn decisions local, The role of the government in the censorship of art, and city censorship boards had the power to edit or ban films.

City and state censorship ordinances are nearly as old as the movies themselves, and such ordinances banning the public exhibition of "immoral" films proliferated. Public outcry over perceived immorality in Hollywood and the movies, as well as the growing number of city and state censorship boards, led the movie studios to fear that federal regulations were not far off; so they created, inthe Motion Pictures Producers and Distributors Association which became the Motion Picture Association of America inan industry trade and lobby organization.

The association was headed by Will H. Haysa well-connected Republican lawyer who had previously been United States Postmaster General; and he derailed attempts to institute federal censorship over the movies. In Hays compiled a list of subjects, culled from his experience with the various US censorship boards, which he felt Hollywood studios would be wise to avoid.

The advent of talking pictures in led to a perceived need for further enforcement. Martin Quigleythe publisher of a Chicago-based motion picture trade newspaper, began lobbying for a more extensive code that not only listed material that was inappropriate for the movies, but also contained a moral system that the movies could help to promote—specifically, a system based on Catholic theology.

Louis University, to write such a code and on March 31, the board of directors of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors Association adopted it formally.

Publicly purchased or commissioned art

This original version especially was once popularly known as the Hays Code, but it and its later revisions are now commonly called the Production Code. However, Depression economics and changing social mores resulted in the studios producing racier fare that the Code, lacking an aggressive enforcement body, was unable to redress.

This era is known as Pre-Code Hollywood. An amendment to the Code, adopted on June 13,established the Production Code Administration PCAand required all films released on or after July 1, to obtain a certificate of approval before being released.

For more than thirty years following, virtually all motion pictures produced in the United States and released by major studios adhered to the code. The Production Code was not created or enforced by federal, state, or city government. In fact, the Hollywood studios adopted the code in large part in the hopes of avoiding government censorship, preferring self-regulation to government regulation.

The enforcement of the Production Code led to the dissolution of many local censorship boards. Meanwhile, the US Customs Department prohibited the importation of the Czech film Ecstasystarring an actress soon to be known as Hedy Lamarran action which was upheld on appeal.

InJoseph I. Another famous case of enforcement involved the western The Outlawproduced by Howard Hughes. Hughes eventually persuaded Breen that the breasts did not violate the code and the film could be shown.

Some films produced outside the mainstream studio system during this time did flout the conventions of the code, such as Child Bridewhich featured a nude scene involving year-old actress Shirley Mills.

Even cartoon sex symbol Betty Boop had to change from being a flapperand began to wear an old-fashioned housewife skirt. Inin the case of Joseph Burstyn, Inc.

Wilsonthe U. Film distributor Joseph Burstyn released the film in the U. His film The Moon is Blueabout a young woman who tries to play two suitors off against each other by claiming that she plans to keep her virginity until marriage, was the first film to use the words "virgin", "seduce", and "mistress", and it was released without a certificate of approval.

He later made The Man with the Golden Armwhich portrayed the prohibited subject of drug abuse, and Anatomy of a Murder which dealt with rape.

InJoseph Breen retired and Geoffrey Shurlock was appointed as his successor. Variety noted "a decided tendency towards a broader, more casual approach" in the enforcement of the code.

President Barack Obama said on December 19, that Sony "made a mistake" in pulling its film The Interview from distribution following a cyber-attack that American officials may have linked to North Korea. The Pawnbroker and the end of the Code In the early s, British films such as VictimA Taste of Honeyand The Leather Boys offered a daring social commentary about gender roles and homophobia that violated the Hollywood Production Code, yet the films were still released in America.

The American gay rightscivil rightsand youth movements prompted a reevaluation of the depiction of themes of race, class, gender, and sexuality that had been restricted by the Code. The producers also appealed the rejection to the Motion Picture Association of America.

The exception to the code was granted as a "special and unique case", and was described by The New York Times at the time as "an unprecedented move that will not, however, set a precedent.

Valenti negotiated a compromise: The word "screw" was removed, but other language, including the phrase "hump the hostess", remained. The film received Production Code approval despite having language that was clearly prohibited.

The British-produced, but American-financed film Blowup presented a different problem.If government has the authority to define what is art, it can also define what art isn’t, which leads to greater censorship.

If a certain type of art is warranted as obscene, the government has. Censorship in the United States involves the suppression of speech or public communication and raises issues of freedom of speech, which is protected by the First .

Regulation of artistic expression

Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information, on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or "inconvenient" as determined by a government or private institution, for example, corporate censorship.

The Role of Censorship in Public Art October 2, by Glenn Weiss It is completely unfair to everyone involved at Mass MOCA to describe the removal of Christoph Buchel’s exhibition an . Censorship by the government is ashio-midori.com contrast, when private individuals or groups organize boycotts against stores that sell magazines of which they disapprove, their actions are protected by the First Amendment, although they can become dangerous in the extreme.

The role of the government in the censorship of art

Visual Art Paintings, sculptures, prints, installations, drawings, and photography are all considered protected speech under the First Amendment. Even so, conflict arises based on objections to the religious, sexual/nudity, or political content of the artwork.

Government & the Arts