In 19th century European politics, the reactionary class included the Roman Catholic Church's hierarchy—the clergythe aristocracyroyal families and royalists —believing that national government is the sole domain of the Church and the state. In France, supporters of traditional rule by direct heirs of the House of Bourbon dynasty were labelled the legitimist reaction. In the Third Republicthe monarchists were the reactionary faction, later renamed conservative.
Share via Email April was a turbulent month for the people of Bhutan. One of the remotest nations in the world, perched high in the snowlines of the Himalayas, suffered a crime wave. Theinhabitants of a kingdom that calls itself the Land of the Thunder Dragon had never experienced serious law-breaking before.
Yet now there were reports from many towns and villages of fraud, violence and even murder. The Bhutanese had always been proud of their incorruptible officials - until Parop Tshering, the year-old chief accountant of the State Trading Corporation, was charged on April 5 with embezzling 4.
Every aspect of Bhutanese life is steeped in Himalayan Buddhism, and yet on April 13 the Royal Bhutan police began searching the provincial town of Mongar for thieves who had vandalised and robbed three of the country's most ancient stupas.
Three days later in Thimphu, Bhutan's sedate capital, where overindulgence in rice wine had been the only social vice, Dorje, a year-old truck driver, bludgeoned his wife to death after she discovered he was addicted to heroin. In Bhutanfamily welfare has always come first; then, on April 28, Sonam, a year-old farmer, drove his terrified in-laws off a cliff in a drunken rage, killing his niece and injuring his sister.
Why was this kingdom with its head in the clouds falling victim to the kind of crime associated with urban life in America and Europe? For the Bhutanese, the only explanation seemed to be five large satellite dishes, planted in a vegetable patch, ringed by sugar-pink cosmos flowers on the outskirts of Thimphu.
In JuneBhutan became the last nation in the world to turn on television. Four years on, those same subscribers are beginning to accuse television of smothering their unique culture, of promoting a world that is incompatible with their own, and of threatening to destroy an idyll where time has stood still for half a millennium.
A refugee monk from Tibet, the Shabdrung, created this tiny country in as a bey-yul, or Buddhist sanctuary, a refuge from the ills of the world. So successful were he and his descendants at isolating themselves that by the s virtually all that was known of Bhutan in the west was James Hilton's novel, Lost Horizon.
He called it Shangri-la, a secret Himalayan valley, whose people never grew old and lived by principles laid down by their high lama: Bhutan had no diplomatic relations with any other country untiland the first invited western visitors came only infor the coronation of the current monarch: Dragon King Jigme Singye Wangchuck.
Today, although a constant stream of people are moving to Thimphu - with their cars - there is still no word in dzongkha, the Bhutanese language, for traffic jam. But none of these developments, it seems, has made such a fundamental impact on Bhutanese life as TV. Since the April crime wave, the national newspaper, Kuensel, has called for the censoring of television some have even suggested that foreign broadcasters, such as Star TV, be banned altogether.
We are beginning to see crime associated with drug users all over the world - shoplifting, burglary and violence.
The enemy is right here with us in our own living room. People behave like the actors, and are now anxious, greedy and discontent. Can TV reasonably be accused of weakening spiritual values, of inciting fraud and murder among a peaceable people?
Or is Bhutan's new anti-TV lobby just a cover for those in fear of change? Television always gets the blame in the west when society undergoes convulsions, and there are always those ready with a counter argument.
In Bhutan, thanks to its political and geographic isolation, and the abruptness with which its people embraced those 46 cable channels, the issue should be more clearcut. And for those of us sitting on the couch in the west, how the kingdom is affected by TV may well help to find an answer to the question that has evaded us: The Bhutanese government itself says that it is too early to decide.
Only Sangay Ngedup, minister for health and education, will concede that there is a gulf opening up between old Bhutan and the new: Will we now be blowing each other's heads off?Singapore is a unique Asian gem, often called the Switzerland of the east.
It actually may remind you of what America used to be—reasonable rates of taxation, tough punishment for criminals, favorable business climate, and slender, attractive women.
Below you will find five outstanding thesis statements / paper topics for “Frankenstein” by Mary Shelley that can be used as essay starters.
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Among the factors that shaped modernism were the development of modern industrial societies and the rapid growth of cities, followed then by reactions of horror to World War I. PUBLISHERS’ NOTE. Instincts and appetites form a part of all life on earth.
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