THIS essay examines the idea of tolerance in our advanced industrial society. The conclusion reached is that the realization of the objective of tolerance would call for intolerance toward prevailing policies, attitudes, opinions, and the extension of tolerance to policies, attitudes, and opinions which are outlawed or suppressed. In other words, today tolerance appears again as what it was in its origins, at the beginning of the modern period--a partisan goal, a subversive liberating notion and practice.
Essay on Aggression Article Shared by After reading this essay you will learn about: Subject-Matter of Aggression 2. Injustice in Work Place 8. Sex and Age Differences in Aggression 9.
Hostility and Aggression Violence and aggression are the most vital issues which modern society faces. Despite wide spread education, independence, freedom of thought and speech, freedom from deprivation, fulfillment of basic needs and wants, improvement in socio-economic conditions and style of living, improvement in child rearing practices, in many countries around the globe, aggression and violence are on the rise.
The horrible violence particularly against women, children and innocent persons indicates the morbid and dangerous disease human beings are suffering from. The alarming rise in the aggressive and indiscipline behaviour of modern youths like burning cars, buses, destroying public property, assaulting common men on slightest faults, eve teasing, and passing filthy comments on women raise finger at the way the society is progressing.
We say we are educated, civilized and belong to great nations of the world. We say, we have high traditions, glorious culture and heritage. We feel proud for the contribution and sacrifice of our grand-parents, great grand-parents and forefathers to the nation at the cost of their personal interests and comfort and happiness.
But at the same time we feel ashamed at the dangerous rise in the aggressive and violent behaviour of the present generation throughout the world though the degree of violence and aggression varies from place to place, society to society and country to country.
Mahatma Gandhi and his associates who could get back the independence of India through non-violence are perhaps forgotten in this world full of violence and aggression. The remarkable increase of violence and aggression in the behaviour of the educated and uneducated, rich and poor, employers and unemployed reminds one of a world full of dangerous, chronic and infectious diseases.
Aggression and violence are diseases of human mind and difficult though not impossible to cure.
Moreover, the cold war between big and small nations, the violent conflict between various nations on various geographical, social, economic, political and cultural issues, are on the increase in-spite of the functioning of various world peace groups. Boarder issue between various neighbouring countries has increased the aggressive and violent behaviour of people.
Terrorists and Militant groups are daily engaged in mass murder of innocent citizens. Further, with the increase in atomic expulsion and atomic power groups the matter has further deteriorated and no one knows what will happen to human life next moment. The law and order situation has so much worsened to-day in many countries of the world including India that nobody who goes out, does not know if he will return home safe and secured.
In India particularly in Jammu and Kashmir during last few decades there is no limit to the killing of innocent persons by militants and terrorists. The terrorist activity has also increased unimaginably throughout the world.
Superior powers of the world even with their most advanced military system, improved arms and ammunitions and richness have not been able to fight with terrorists successfully.
Let us look back to the terrorist act on World Trade Centre on September 11, which not only destroyed world trade center located at New York, but also killed several hundreds of innocent civilians of different countries who were present at that time there.
The world and its peace loving people will never forgive those aggressive and violent personalities who are creating indiscipline and total havoc in our social system, who are engaged in most heinous and unforgivable crimes.
Starting from violent mob behaviour, plane hijacking to child murder all violent activities should be condemned by the entire world irrespective of community, caste, creed, nationality, sex and religion. Sociologists, psychologists and social psychologists and criminologists under these circumstances have tried and are trying to find out the root of aggression, hostility and violence and why these negative behaviours are on the rise day by day.
They are also trying to find out solutions to these massive problems which have dangerous implications for the human society. Not that aggression was a novel issue.
It was there since the creation of human beings. Active research on aggression, and hostility started during s and since these negative emotions affect the peace and happiness of society, psychologists and sociologists have shown tremendous interest on the study of aggression, its causes, reactions and consequences.
They have tried in an objective manner to find out ways and means to prevent and reduce it to save the mankind from war and violence. Sigmund Freud and many other psychologists have considered aggression as a global instinctive, steam boiler like force.
This is popularly known as Thantom or the death destruction instinct which according to Freud is basically inevitable for self preservation and reproduction.
The higher animals eat the lower animals for their self preservation. A boy studying in standard I was always being beaten by a class mate without any reason and surprisingly the small victim never reported back as he was instructed by his grandfather not to be engaged in aggressive act.
On enquiry it was noticed that the aggressive boy was hostile towards his father who insisted and compelled his son to always study and do well in the examination.
In the instant case, the hostility and aggression towards his father was transferred to an innocent class-mate who was very meek and mild.
According to Adler aggression is self protection and the affirmation of the self. Freud identified aggression with an urge to destroy, where as Adler views it as an urge to dominate and subdue.
Mc Dougall has denoted the phenomenon of aggression in the instinct of combat on the basis of the hypothesis first postulated by Freud, Miller, Bollard and others of the Yale group. McDougall regards aggressive impulse is far from being injurious. Miller Dollard and others of the Yale group view that aggression is always a consequence of frustration.Oct 17, · Campus Watch demands academic integrity in North American Middle East studies (MES) programs.
It reviews and critiques MES bias with the aim of improving education – keeping watch on scores of professors at hundreds of universities. Consumers buyer behavior and the resulting purchase decision is strongly influenced by cultural, social, personal and psychological characteristics.
An understanding of the influence of these factors is essential for marketers in order to develop suitable marketing mixes to appeal to the target customer.
Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.
For more information, please consult the Publication . - Social psychology For students who are interested in being psychologists may know that psychology is a study of human minds and behaviors, and blow this big topic, there are many subfields such as clinical psychology, developmental psychology, or cognitive psychology.
Essay A consumers buyer behaviour is influenced by four major factors; cultural, social, personal, and psychological factors. These factors cause consumers to develop product and brand preferences.
Although many of these factors cannot be directly controlled by marketers, understanding of their impact is essential as marketing mix .
A Consumers Buyer Behaviour Is Influenced By Four Major Factors; Cultural, Social, Personal, And Psychological A consumers buyer behavior is influenced by four major factors; cultural, social, personal, and psychological factors.